Summative Practice 14 – Question 1 – 4 (Form 4 Biology Textbook Exercise and Answer)

Question 1:
State the differences between cervical and thoracic vertebrae.

The cervical vertebra possesses a short spinous process, a small centrum, wide transverse processes and a pair of transverse foramens.
The thoracic vertebra has a long spinous process, short but bigger and thicker centrum. The transverse processes are longer but no transverse foramen is present.

Question 2:
Figure 1 shows the locomotion of an earthworm.

Explain the muscle action in segments T and S that enables the earthworm to move in the direction shown.

Segment T: Circular muscles contract
Segment S: Longitudinal muscles contra

Question 3:
Why is it important for an organism to maintain its shape?

Body shape is important for movement and support, and enables body organs to function properly.

Question 4:
Describe the meaning of good posture. Why must we always practise good posture while doing any activity?

• Good posture refers to the correct way of sitting, standing, kneeling and carrying out other body movements.

• We need to practise good posture because good posture provides perfect support to the musculoskeletal system, eases blood flow, reduces injury to skeletal muscles and relieves pressure to the vertebral muscles and column.

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