SPM Form 4/Form 5 Biology Revision Notes

Form 4 Biology01 Introduction to BiologyThe Study of BiologyScientific Investigation 02 Cell StructureCell Structure and FunctionComponents of a CellComparison between the Animal Cell and Plant CellRelation between the Density of Organelles and the Function of CellsCell OrganisationUnicellular OrganismAmoeba spParamecium spMulticellular OrganismCellTissueOrganOrgan SystemInvolvement of Systems in Maintaining an Optimal Internal EnvironmentThe Uniqueness of the CellsObjective QuestionsCell Structure … Read moreSPM Form 4/Form 5 Biology Revision Notes

1.8.1 Lymphatic System (Structured Question 1 & 2)

Question 1:Figure below shows part of the circulatory system and the lymphatic system in the human body.(a)(i) What is fluid V? [1 mark](ii) What happens to the components of fluid V when it passes through the lymph node? [1 mark](b)(i) Fluid V originates from the blood.Describe how fluid V is formed from the blood. [2 marks](ii) State … Read more1.8.1 Lymphatic System (Structured Question 1 & 2)

1.8.1 The Mechanism of Blood Clotting (Structured Question 1 & 2)

Question 1:(a)(i) Diagram below shows an electron micrograph of cellular components of human blood.Based on Diagram I, explain how platelets help to stop bleeding when a wound occurs. [4 marks](ii) A blood test shows that a man’s erythrocytes count is below normal.Explain the possible consequences of this condition on his health.What type of food should … Read more1.8.1 The Mechanism of Blood Clotting (Structured Question 1 & 2)

1.4.2 The Formation of the Interstitial Fluid and Lymph

The Formation of the Interstitial Fluid and Lymph 1. The blood from the arteries flows at a high pressure into the blood capillaries. 2. The high hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries forces the blood plasma to     leak out through the capillary walls into the space between the body cells. 3. The fluids that fill up the spaces between … Read more1.4.2 The Formation of the Interstitial Fluid and Lymph

1.3.2 Consequences of Blood Clotting Related Problem

HaemophiliaHaemophilia is a group of hereditary genetic disorders that impair the body’s ability to control blood clotting or coagulation.As a result, minor injuries and internal bleeding can results in death owing to excessive loss of blood.ThrombosisThrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory … Read more1.3.2 Consequences of Blood Clotting Related Problem

1.3.1 Mechanism of Blood Clotting

The figure below shows the mechanism of blood clotting.When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets will gather around the wound and coagulate.At the same time, an enzyme called thrombokinase will be released.Thrombokinase will convert the inactive prothrombin to the active thrombin.The thrombin will then catalyses the soluble fibrinogen to the insoluble fibrin.Fibrin will form a … Read more1.3.1 Mechanism of Blood Clotting

1.2.6 Regulation of Blood Pressure

Pressure is how much force exerted on one unit area of a surface.Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels.Sometime, it is also called the arterial blood pressure as it is the pressure in the arteries.Normal Blood PressureWhen measuring blood pressure, we measure thesystolic pressure (highest pressure … Read more1.2.6 Regulation of Blood Pressure

1.2.5c Circulation of Blood in Humans

The circulation of blood in human is due to the pumping of the heart.The cardiac muscles contract to produce heartbeat which pumps the blood to the whole body.The Cardiac Cycle( Image by Madhero88 shared under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license. )The heartbeat is initiated by the sinoatrial node (also called the SAN or pacemaker) … Read more1.2.5c Circulation of Blood in Humans