Summative Practice 10 – Question 1 – 4 (Form 4 Biology Textbook Exercise and Answer)

Question 1:
An accident victim with blood group B needs an immediate blood transfusion. Is it safe for the patient to receive blood from individuals with the blood group O? Explain why.

Yes. Individuals with blood group O do not have antigen A or B on their red blood cells. They can donate blood to individuals with blood group B because no agglutination will occur.

Question 2:
An individual has a low number of erythrocytes. Explain the effect of this situation on his/her health. Suggest the types of food that should be consumed by the individual to recover from this situation.

• Low number of erythrocytes means that there are less haemoglobin to combine with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin.

• This means that less oxygen is transported to body tissues for cellular respiration.

• As a result, less energy is produced.

• The individual becomes easily exhausted and looks pale.

• He/She may have anaemia.

• He/She must consume a lot of ferum-rich foods such as spinach.

Question 3:
The human heart has a pacemaker. The heart pacemaker that is damaged can be replaced by an electronic pacemaker. Explain how the electronic pacemaker functions.

• The electronic pacemaker functions as a sinoatrial node that triggers the impulse to control and maintain heartbeat.

• The generated electric impulse spreads to both atria and subsequently reaches the atrioventricular node

• Next, the atrioventricular node transmits the rhythmic electric impulse throughout the ventricle and causing the heart to beat and pump blood.

Question 4:
Name one example of nutrient found in blood and how the nutrient can be transported to cells.

• One example of nutrient is glucose.

• The heart pumps blood from the artery to blood capillaries.

• The arterial diameter is larger than the capillaries.

• This produces a high hydrostatic pressure that forces glucose to diffuse from the blood capillaries into the interstitial spaces to form tissue fluid.

• The glucose concentration in the fluid is higher than that of the cells.

• Glucose diffuses into the cells via facilitated diffusion.

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