Formative Practice 15.3 (Form 4 Biology Textbook Exercise and Answer)

Question 1:
State the hormones involved in the menstrual cycle and their functions.

FSH• Stimulates oestrogen secretion
• Stimulates follicle development in the ovary
LH• Causes ovulation
• Causes the formation of corpus luteum
Oestrogen• Recovers and repairs endometrial tissues and stimulates the thickening of endometrium
• Stimulates follicle development up to maturity
• Stimulates secretion of FSH and LH before ovulation
Progesterone• Stimulates the thickening of the endometrial wall by making it thicker, folded and rich with blood vessels in preparation for implantation of embryo.
• Impedes the secretion of FSH and LH in order to block follicle development and prevent ovulation

Question 2:
Explain the functions of progesterone and its effects on pregnancy.

During pregnancy, progesterone prevents uterus contraction and new follicle development as well as induces the enlargement of internal structures such as the ureter and uterus in preparation for carrying a baby to term.

Question 3:
Explain what would happen to the corpus luteum if fertilisation does not occur.

Corpus luteum degenerates, causing progesterone and oestrogen to stop secreting. Without the stimulation of progesterone and oestrogen, the endometrial wall collapses and menstruation takes place.

Question 4:
In your opinion, what is the best way to overcome premenstrual syndrome?

• Intake of a balanced diet
• Frequent exercise
• Positive attitude
• Get enough sleep
• Always active

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