2.2.2e Involvement of Systems in Maintaining an Optimal Internal Environment

Internal Environment of Multicellular Organism

  1. The internal environment of a multicellular cell is referring to the medium surrounding the cell.
  2. It consists of blood plasma and interstitial fluid. (also called the extracellular fluid)


Homeostasis is the property of a system, especially a living organism, that regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition.

Factors Affecting the Internal Environment.

  1. Body temperature
  2. pH value of the blood
  3. Sugar level of the blood
  4. Blood pressure
  5. Osmotic pressure of the blood
  6. Concentration of the oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood

Importance of Homeostasis

Maintaining a suitable environment for all the enzyme function efficienly, and hence enable all biochemical reactions been carried out at their maximum rate.

Regulation of body temperature

Nervous system Detect changes in body temperature
Integumentary system Produces sweat when the surrounding is hot.
Circulatory system Transports and distributes heat evenly through out the body
Muscular system Shivering to produce heat when the surrounding is cool.

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