SPM Biology 2018, Paper 2 (Question 1 & 2)

Question 1:
Diagram 1.1 shows the structure of a plant cell.

Diagram 1.1 

Name the structures C and D. [2 marks]

State the component which forms structure C. [1 mark]
(b)(ii) Draw and label the basic unit structure of the main component which is named in 1(b)(i). [2 marks]

The cell in Diagram 1.1 is immersed in distilled water for an hour.
(i) Explain what will happen to the structure B. [3 marks]
(ii) Explain why the cell does not burst. [2 marks]

(d) Diagram 1.2 shows two examples of tissues in plants. 

Diagram 1.2 

Based on Diagram 1.2, state a characteristic of each tissue.
(i) Meristematic tissue: 
(ii) Collenchyma tissue: [2 marks]

C : Chromosome / Chromatin
D : Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)


Structure B (vacuole) will swell or increase in size.
– The vacuole contains cell sap which is hypertonic (to distilled water).
– Water molecules diffuse into the cell by osmosis and fill the vacuole causing it to swell.

– Plant cells are surrounded by a strong and rigid cell wall.
– Cell wall is able to withstand the strong turgor / hydrostatic pressure that develops within the cell.

– Small-sized cells
– Dense cytoplasm / lack of vacuoles
– Large nucleus / nucleus at various stage of division / mitosis
– Undifferentiated cell
(Any one of the characteristics)

– Cell wall is not uniformly thickened
– Corners of cell have thicker cell wall
(Any one of the characteristics)

Question 2:
Diagram 2.1 shows the foods which contain carbohydrates.

Diagram 2.1 

Based on diagram 2.1, name the type of carbohydrates in rice and honey. [2 marks]
(a)(ii) Explain why diabetic patients are advised not to consume excessive amount of rice in their daily diet. [3 marks]

Diagram 2.2 shows the formation of molecule R in milk.

Diagram 2.2

Based on the diagram 2.2, describe:
(i) the formation of molecule R. [2 marks]
(ii) the breakdown of molecule R. [2 marks]

When sucrose solution is heated with Benedict’s solution, the blue solution remains unchanged.
Explain why Benedict’s test gives negative result on sucrose. [3 marks]

Rice : Starch
Honey : Fructose / glucose / sucrose


  • When rice is completely digested, it produces glucose.
  • Diabetic patients lack / produce lower amount of insulin hormone.
  • They are unable to convert excessive glucose into glycogen, hence the higher concentration of glucose in blood.


  • Molecule R is disaccharide.
  • It is formed when two molecules of monosaccharide are linked together by condensation reaction / with the loss of water molecule.


  • Molecule R is hydrolysed / digested by the addition of a water molecule by an enzyme.
  • To form its component monosaccharides / P and Q.


  • Sucrose is non-reducing sugar.
  • Sucrose unable to reduce the blue copper (II) ions / Cu2+ (aq) in Benedict’s solution.
  • Red copper (I) ions / Cu+ (aq) are not produced / formed.

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